Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. Another time, while he slept in an inn, a prostitute was introduced naked beside him, and he saved his chastity by running. [28] He was the first Cistercian monk placed on the calendar of saints and was canonized by Alexander III 18 January 1174. 1303-1373), Eugene III Pope (d. 1153), Benedict Saint, Abbot of Monte Cassino, Malachy Saint, Marie Sainte Vierge, Victor Saint, Confessor author of “henry viii. Christians had been defeated at the Siege of Edessa and most of the county had fallen into the hands of the Seljuk Turks. Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. Omissions? In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, of Clairvaux, on the 25th of June, 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux thence became inseparable. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died August 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized January 18, 1174; feast day August 20), Cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. His influence led Alexander III to launch reforms that led to the establishment of canon law. He was also the patron of the Knights Templar. He is often cited for saying that Mary Magdalene was the Apostle to the Apostles. [4], The beginnings of Clairvaux Abbey were trying and painful. The zeal of Bernard extended to the bishops, the clergy, and lay people. Illustrious persons were buried at Clairvaux in the livery of the poor of Christ, among them Henry of France, brother of King Louis VII; Alexander of Cologne, who was later one of the successors of St. Bernard of Clairvaux; Henry Murdach who became Abbot of Vauclair and later Archbishop of York; Philip, Archdeacon of Liège, etc. Download books for free. Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes ... Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.[4]. Bernard of Clairvaux, saint, ascetic, founder of numerous abbeys and crusade preacher, was a powerful man of the Church and a 12th century trailblazer. [13], News came at this time from the Holy Land that alarmed Christendom. This caused the pope to be recognized by all the great powers. He had a spe­cial de­vo­tion to the Blessed Vir­gin, and there is no one who speaks more sub­lime­ly of the Queen of Heav­en. Born in what is now considered France at Fontaines near Dijon in 1090 or 1091, his father, Tecelin or Tesselin, was a knight who died in the First Crusade, as well as a friend and vassal of the Duke of Burgundy. Bernard's great de­sire was to excel in lit­er­a­ture in order to take up the study of Sa­cred Scrip­ture, which later on be­came, as it were, his own tongue. [4], In the year 1128 AD, Bernard participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew of Albano. Biografie. Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint (1090 or 91-1153), Mary Blessed Virgin, Saint, Malachy Saint (1094?-1148), Jesus Christ, Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint (1090 or 1091-1153), Bernard, de Clairvaux Saint (1090 ou 91-1153), Bridget of Sweden, Saint (ca. [19] The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ"[19]. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year. There is perhaps no better way to enjoy Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux than by booking a nearby Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux hotel! On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". This led for a time to the exaltation of human reason and rationalism. [19], Unlike the First Crusade, the new venture attracted royalty, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France; Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders; Henry, the future Count of Champagne; Louis's brother Robert I of Dreux; Alphonse I of Toulouse; William II of Nevers; William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey; Hugh VII of Lusignan, Yves II, Count of Soissons; and numerous other nobles and bishops. He then went with him into Italy and reconciled Pisa with Genoa, and Milan with the pope. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. Updates? Aleth’s death, in 1107, so affected Bernard that he claimed that this is when his “long path to complete conversion” began. Stones and trees will teach you that which you cannot learn from the masters. Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the most interesting and influential people of his time. Bernard was the third of seven children, six of whom were sons. The regimen was so austere that Bernard became ill, and only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities. From the beginning of the year 1153, Bernard felt his death approaching. Growing up my family had a St. Bernard dog. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."[4]. Bernard of Clairvaux is the attributed author of poems often translated in English hymnals as: The modern critical edition is Sancti Bernardi opera (1957–1977), edited by Jean Leclercq.[33][d]. Local system number: Believing himself at last secure in his cloister, Bernard devoted himself with renewed vigour to the composition of the works which won for him the title of "Doctor of the Church". [18][19] Others followed his example and he and his helpers were supposedly still producing crosses as night fell. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. The monastery, however, made rapid progress. After writing a eulogy for the new military order of the Knights Templar, he would write about the fundamentals of Christian spiritual life, namely the contemplation and imitation of Christ, which he expressed in his sermons “The Steps of Humility” and “The Love of God.”. August 20, ... call upon Mary. He is labeled the "Mellifluous Doctor" for his eloquence. The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. [17] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. After persuading Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit William X, Duke of Aquitaine. He also preached against Catharism. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians. Towards the end of 1134, he made a second journey into Aquitaine, where William X had relapsed into schism. [4], Towards the close of the 11th century, a spirit of independence flourished within schools of philosophy and theology. He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. He could also commune with nature and say: Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. Latin text by J. L eclercq, H. R ochais, and C h. H. T albot. Bernard de clairvaux. He hastened to terminate his worldly life and restore discipline in his monastery. [5], In 1098 Robert of Molesme had founded Cîteaux Abbey, near Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St Benedict in all its rigour. Abelard's treatise on the Trinity had been condemned as heretical in 1121, and he was compelled to throw his own book into the fire. Bernard's "Prayer to the Shoulder Wound of Jesus" is often published in Catholic prayer books. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on 25 June 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux soon became inseparable. Whether you are traveling alone, as a couple, or with your entire family, your visit to Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux will be a highlight of your holiday – and your hotel should be too! But once out of Bernard's presence, he reneged. Bernard later commented that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. 1473. If thou art tossed by the waves of pride or ambition, detraction or envy, look to the star, call upon Mary. It was here, also, that he produced a small but complete treatise on Mariology (study of doctrines and dogmas concerning the Virgin Mary), “Praises of the Virgin Mother.” Bernard was to become a major champion of a moderate cult of the Virgin, though he did not support the notion of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. [18], There was at first virtually no popular enthusiasm for the crusade as there had been in 1095. The familial atmosphere engendered in him a deep respect for mercy, justice, and loyal affection for others. The din of arms, the danger, the labors, the fatigues of war, are the penances that God now imposes upon you. Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force, replying: Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? That dog breed did not receive its namesake from St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramentally ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. Bernard z Clairvaux, Saint Bernard de Clairvaux, ברנר מקלרבו, ברנרד מקלרבו, ברנר מקלרוו, 베르나르두스, 클레르보의 베르나르도, 클레르보의 성 베르나르도, 클레르보의 베르나르두스, San Bernardo de Claraval, Bernardo de Fontaine, Bernardo, San Bernardo di … Bernard de Clairvaux (cunoscut și ca Sfântul Bernard, n. 1091, d. 21 august 1153, Clairvaux) a fost un călugăr și conte de Châtillon. Soon afterwards, Henry of Lausanne was arrested, brought before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. His two successors, Pope Celestine II and Pope Lucius II, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, and known thereafter as Eugene III, raised to the Chair of Saint Peter. Bernard of Clairvaux (French saint, Cistercian abbot, and writer, 1090-1153) Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, and the King of France also sent ambassadors. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. Deus vult! " Under pressure from his ecclesiastical superiors and his friends, notably the bishop and scholar William of Champeaux, he retired to a hut near the monastery and to the discipline of a quack physician. [6] His father and all his brothers entered Clairvaux to pursue religious life, leaving only Humbeline, his sister, in the secular world. By the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, England, Germany, Portugal, Castile, and Aragon supported Pope Innocent II; however, most of Italy, southern France, and Sicily, with the Latin patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem supported Antipope Anacletus II. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them. However, Abelard continued to develop his teachings, which were controversial in some quarters. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. Born of Burgundian landowning aristocracy, Bernard grew up in a family of five brothers and one sister. Bernard sought the counsel of the abbot of Cîteaux, St. Stephen Harding, and decided to enter this struggling small new community that had been established by St. Robert of Molesme in 1098 as an effort to restore Benedictinism to a more primitive and austere pattern of life.